1. Introduction: The addition of a characteristic to a basic subject idea or an isolate idea leads to the addition of an array. The addition of an array implies the addition of a further division of a basic subject or an isolate idea as the case may be. Any isolate idea taken along with its succession of sub isolates is also an isolate idea. The succession of the isolate idea from the first to the last reached in this process is denoted by the term “chain of isolate idea”. A chain may similarly be formed in respect of basic subject idea.
4. Examples: Asia, India, Assam, Kamrup, Guwahati is a chain of isolate idea.
Archives: In general, archives consist of records which have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on the ground of their enduring cultural, historical or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist. This means that archives (the places) are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings.
a) Definition: The word “archive” is derived from the Greek “arkhē” meaning government or order (compare an-archy, mon-archy). The word originally developed from the Greek “arkheion” which refers to the home or dwelling of the Archon, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted under the authority of the Archon. Since “archive”, as a noun or a verb, has acquired meanings related to computer science, Archivists tend to prefer the term “archives” (with an S) as the correct terminology to serve as both the singular and plural.
A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science.
i) Safe storage and preservation of the document in a climate control facility;
ii) Classification and Cataloguing of the document;
iii) Retrieval and safe handling of the document.
c) Collections: It contains records (primary source documents) which have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization’s lifetime. The collection refers to all historical records (not just documents and manuscripts but videos, disks, and other tangible forms as well) held and preserved by an institution. Archival materials are not published; these are always famous documents, or even necessarily old.
The archives of an organization (such as a corporation or government) tend to contain records, such as administrative files, business records, memos, official correspondences and meeting minutes. The archives of an individual may include letters, papers, photographs, computer files, scrapbooks, financial records or diaries created or collected by the individual – regardless of media or format.
d) Services: Professor and author Bruce Dearstyne identified the eight roles of the archivist-
– The role of an agent to the past and the future. This means that archivists must always bear in mind its historical significance and its importance to posterity.
– They must work in conjunction with related information fields. For example, many archivists work closely with librarians and records managers to determine the value of records and their place in the repository.
– They act as organizers. This requires the archivists to manage, coordinate, and allocate resources in a manner that allows an easy access and use by staff and patrons.
– They should assert control and order. This includes systematic filing and storing of items.
– They ensure physical survival of records through security, storage, and disaster planning.
– Archivists foster access to valuable records and so they must also encourage patrons and researchers to make use of their collections. They can do this through various promotional campaigns (articles or exhibits).
– Archivists act as public relations coordinators for their repository. This means that they attempt to reach out to the community via conferences and presentations that demonstrate the importance and richness of their resources.
There are many factors according to which administration can be distinguished from management. These are as follows:
Administration: It is concerned with formulation of broad objectives, plans & policies.
Management: Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. It puts into action the policies and plans laid down by the administration.
Administration: Administration is a decision-making function.
Management: Management is an executing function.
Administration: It takes major decisions of an enterprise as a whole.
Management: It takes decisions within the framework set by the administration.
Administration: Administration decides what is to be done & when it is to be done.
Management: Management decides who should as it & how should he dot it.
Administration: Planning and organizing functions are involved in it.
Management: Motivating and controlling functions are involved in it.
Administration: It needs administrative rather than technical abilities. Administration handles the business aspects such as finance.
Management: It requires technical activities. Management handles the employers.
Administration: It is a top-level activity.
Management: It is a middle level activity.
Administration: The administration is influenced by public opinion, govt. policies, religious organizations, customs etc.
Management: The management decisions are influenced by the values, opinions, beliefs & decisions of the managers.
Administration: Administration represents owners of the enterprise who earn return on their capital invested & profits in the form of dividend.
Management: Management constitutes the employees of the organization who are paid remuneration (in the form of salaries & wages).
Accessioning Work: The accessioning work includes the following activities
a) Receiving the Books and Bills: From the vendors books are received along with bills.
b) Checking the Books: After receiving the books they should be checked for page missing, damaged binding, and for such other issues.
c) Arranging the Bills and the Books in Parallel Sequence: The books should be arranged in the sequence in which these have been entered in the order placed to the vendor.
d) Verification: Then the bill should be verified in regard to the order in terms of books received and the amount to be paid. The order slip with the bill and books should be submitted at the accession corner. If books are not received in time then reminder letters should be sent to the vendor.
i) Entering details in the accession register: In the accessioning process, the details of the books are entered in the accession register.Documents are entered date-wise according to their receipt in the library. All purchased books are entered in the order of their bills.
ii) Entering accession number in the document: Accession number is recorded at the back of title page and on the conventional clue place of the volume.
iii) Certifying the bills: Accession number is also written against the respective item in the bill for purchased book. After entering all the items covered by one bill a certificate must be furnished on the bill which should be like the following. A rubber stamp for this purpose may be usefull
|Certified that all the books as per the bill have been duly entered in the accession register vide numbers from —— to —-.|
f) Transmitting Books: Then the books are sent to the technical department for classification and cataloguing (processing). At this step each book should also be provided with a process slip (7.5 cm X 12.5 cm) as well as earlier order slip.
g) Transmitting Bills: Then bills are passed for payment.
h) Books – In-Process: The cards belonging to them, after noting the date of accessioning and the accession numbers, are filed in a tray labelled as “Books – In-Process”.