Chemistry Notes in hindi || Full General Science Notes PDF


Chemistry notes in hindi || Full General Science Notes PDF

Today, we are sharing a FREE PDF of Chemistry Notes in hindi  . This is very useful for the upcoming competitive exams like SSC CGL, BANK, RAILWAYS,  RRB NTPC, LIC AAO, and many other exams.General Science (भौतिक विज्ञान)  are very important for any competitive exam and this Chemistry Notes in hindi  is very useful for it. this FREE PDF will be very helpful for your examination.

Our Chemistry Notes in hindi  is very Simple and Easy to learn. We also Cover Basic Topics like Maths, Geography, History, Polity, etc. and study materials including previous Year Question Papers, Current Affairs, Important Formulas, etc for upcoming Banking, UPSC, SSC CGL Exams. Our PDF will help you to upgrade your marks in any competitive exam.

Chemistry Notes in hindi Question Answer

1. निम्न में कौन अॅक्सीकरण नहीं है ?

(A) अवक्षेपण
(B) भोजन का पचना
(C) श्वसन
(D) दहन

2. नमक के घोल में सिलवर नाइट्रेट का घोल डालने पर दही जैसे पदार्थ उत्पन्न होता है । यह कौन सी अभिक्रिया है ?

(A) विस्थापन
(B) उदासीनीकरण
(C) संयोजन
(D) अवक्षेपण

3. संक्षारण किस प्रकार की अभिक्रिया है ?

(A) अपचयन अभिक्रिया
(B) अवक्षेपण अभिक्रिया
(C) उपचयन अभिक्रिया
(D) संयोजन अभिक्रिया

4. किसी रासायनिक अभिक्रिया में आॅक्सीजन के अनुपात का बढ़ना क्या कहलाता है ?

(A) अपचयन अभिक्रिया
(B) उपचयन अभिक्रिया
(C) उष्माशोषी अभिक्रिया
(D) विस्थापन अभिक्रिया

5. निम्न में कौन सी अभिक्रियाओं के युग्म हमेशा साथ-साथ होते हैं ?

(A) संयोजन और विघटन
(B) अवक्षेपण और विस्थापन
(C) उदासीनीकरण और विस्थापन
(D) ऑक्सीकरण और अवकरण

6. सोडियम हाइड्रोक्साइड और हाइड्रोक्लोरिक अम्ल की अभिक्रिया से सोडियम क्लोराइड और जल बनाते हैं । यह कौन-सी अभिक्रिया है ?

(A) उदासीनीकरण
(B) विघटन
(C) संयोजन
(D) अवक्षेपण

7. किसी अभिक्रिया में भाग लेने वाले पदार्थ क्या कहलाते हैं ?

(A) प्रतिफल
(B) अवकारक
(C) अभिकारक
(D) ऑक्सीकारक

8. श्वसन किस प्रकार की अभिक्रिया है ?

(A) उष्माक्षेपी अभिक्रिया
(B) संयोजन अभिक्रिया
(C) उपचयन-अपचयन अभिक्रिया
(D) द्विअपघटन अभिक्रिया

9. प्रबल अम्ल और दुर्बल क्षारक से बने लवण का pH मान क्या है ?

(A) 7 से अधिक
(B) 7 से कम
(C) 10 और 14 के बीच
(D) 14 से कम

10. क्षारक को जल में घोलने पर क्या मुक्त होते हैं ?

(A) (OH)-आयन
(B) H+ आयन
(C) दोनों आयन
(D) कोई आयन नहीं

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2007 June UGC NET Previous Years Solved Paper 1

1. Teacher uses visual-aids to make learning:

(A) simple

(B) more knowledgeable

(C) quicker

(D) interesting

Answer: (D)


2. The teacher’s role at the higher educational level is to:

(A) provide information to students

(B) promote self-learning in students

(C) encourage healthy competition among students

(D) help students to solve their personal problems

Answer: (B)


3. Which one of the following teachers would you like the most:

(A) punctual

(B) having research aptitude

(C) loving and having high idealistic philosophy

(D) who often amuses his students

Answer: (B)


4. Micro teaching is most effective for the student-teacher:

(A) during the practice-teaching

(B) after the practice-teaching

(C) before the practice-teaching

(D) none of the above

Answer: (A)


5. Which is the least important factor in teaching?

(A) punishing the students

(B) maintaining discipline in the class

(C) lecturing in impressive way

(D) drawing sketches and diagrams on the black-board

Answer: (A)


6. To test null hypothesis, a researcher uses:

(A) t test


(C) X2

(D) factorial analysis

Answer: (B)


7. A research problem is feasible only when:

(A) it has utility and relevance

(B) it is researchable

(C) it is new and adds something to knowledge

(D) all the above

Answer: (D)


8. Bibliography given in a research report:

(A) shows vast knowledge of the researcher

(B) helps those interested in further research

(C) has no relevance to research

(D) all the above

Answer: (B)


9. Fundamental research reflects the ability to:

(A) Synthesize new ideals

(B) Expound new principles

(C) Evaluate the existing material concerning research

(D) Study the existing literature regarding various topics

Answer: (B)


10. The study in which the investigators attempt to trace an effect is known as:

(A) Survey Research

(B) ‘Ex-post Facto’ Research

(C) Historical Research

(D) Summative Research

Answer: (B)


Read the following passage and answer the questions 11 to 15:

All political systems need to mediate the relationship between private wealth and public power. Those that fail risk a dysfunctional government captured by wealthy interests. Corruption is one symptom of such failure with private willingness-to-pay trumping public goals. Private individuals and business firms pay to get routine services and to get to the head of the bureaucratic queue. They pay to limit their taxes, avoid costly regulations, obtain contracts at inflated prices and get concessions and privatised firms at low prices. If corruption is endemic, public officials – both bureaucrats and elected officials – may redesign programmes and propose public projects with few public benefits and many opportunities for private profit. Of course, corruption, in the sense of bribes, pay-offs and kickbacks, is only one type of government failure. Efforts to promote ‘good governance’ must be broader than anti-corruption campaigns. Governments may be honest but inefficient because no one has an incentive to work productively, and narrow elites may capture the state and exert excess influence on policy. Bribery may induce the lazy to work hard and permit those not in the inner circle of cronies to obtain benefits. However, even in such cases, corruption cannot be confined to ‘functional’ areas. It will be a temptation whenever private benefits are positive. It may be a reasonable response to a harsh reality but, over time, it can facilitate a spiral into an even worse situation.


11. The governments which fail to focus on the relationship between private wealth and public power are likely to become:

(A) Functional

(B) Dysfunctional

(C) Normal functioning

(D) Good governance

Answer: (B)


12. One important symptom of bad governance is:

(A) Corruption

(B) High taxes

(C) Complicated rules and regulations

(D) High prices

Answer: (A)


13. When corruption is rampant, public officials always aim at many opportunities for:

(A) Public benefits

(B) Public profit

(C) Private profit

(D) Corporate gains

Answer: (C)


14. Productivity linked incentives to public/private officials is one of the indicatives for:

(A) Efficient government

(B) Bad governance

(C) Inefficient government

(D) Corruption

Answer: (A)


15. The spiralling corruption can only be contained by promoting:

(A) Private profit

(B) Anti-corruption campaign

(C) Good governance

(D) Pay-offs and kick backs

Answer: (A)


16. Press Council of India is located at:

(A) Chennai

(B) Mumbai

(C) Kolkata

(D) Delhi

Answer: (D)


17. Adjusting the photo for publication by cutting is technically known as:

(A) Photo cutting

(B) Photo bleeding

(C) Photo cropping

(D) Photo adjustment

Answer: (C)


18. Feed-back of a message comes from:

(A) Satellite

(B) Media

(C) Audience

(D) Communicator

Answer: (A)


19. Collection of information in advance before designing communication strategy is known as:

(A) Feed-back

(B) Feed-forward

(C) Research study

(D) Opinion poll

Answer: (D)


20. The aspect ratio of TV screen is:  

(A) 4:3

(B) 4:2

(C) 3:5

(D) 2:3

Answer: (A)

21. Which is the number that comes next in the sequence?

9, 8, 8, 8, 7, 8, 6,     

(A) 5

(B) 6

(C) 8

(D) 4

Answer: (C)


22. If in a certain language TRIVANDRUM is coded as 2 5 9 5 3 5 4 7 5 8, how would MADRAS be coded?

(A) 834536

(B) 834538

(C) 834530

(D) 834539

Answer: (A)


23. The question to be answered by factorial analysis of the quantitative data does not explain one of the following:

(A) Is ‘X’ related to ‘Y’?

(B) How is ‘X’ related to ‘Y’?

(C) How does ‘X’ affect the dependent variable ‘Y’ at different levels of another independent variable ‘K’ or ‘M’?

(D) How is ‘X’ by ‘K’ related to ‘M’?

Answer: (D)


24. January 12, 1980 was Saturday, what day was January 12, 1979:

(A) Saturday

(B) Friday

(C) Sunday

(D) Thursday

Answer: (B)


25. How many Mondays are there in a particular month of a particular year, if the month ends on Wednesday?

(A) 5

(B) 4

(C) 3

(D) None of the above

Answer: (B)


26. From the given four statements, select the two which cannot be true but yet both can be false.

Choose the right pair:

(i) All men are mortal

(ii) Some men are mortal

(iii) No man is mortal

(iv) Some men are not mortal  

(A) (i) and(ii)

(B) (iii) and (iv)

(C) (i) and(iii)

(D) (ii) and(iv)

Answer: (D)


27. A Syllogism must have:  

(A) Three terms

(B) Four terms

(C) Six terms

(D) Five terms

Answer: (B)


28. Copula is that part of proposition which denotes the relationship between:

(A) Subject and predicate

(B) Known and unknown  

(C) Major premise and minor premise

(D) Subject and object  

Answer: (A)


29. “E” denotes:

(A) Universal Negative Proposition

(B) Particular Affirmative Proposition

(C) Universal Affirmative Proposition

(D) Particular Negative Proposition

Answer: (A)


30. ‘A’ is the father of ‘C, and ‘D’ is the son of ‘B’. ‘E’ is the brother of ‘A’. If ‘C is the sister of ‘D’, how is ‘B’ related to ‘E’?

(A) daughter

(B) husband

(C) sister-in-law

(D) brother-in-law

Answer: (C)


31. Which of the following methods will you choose to prepare choropleth map of India showing urban density of population:

(A) Quartiles

(B) Quintiles

(C) Mean and SD

(D) Break – point

Answer: (A)


32. Which of the following methods is best suited to show on a map the types of crops being grown in a region?

(A) Choropleth

(B) Chorochromatic

(C) Choroschematic

(D) Isopleth

Answer: (A)


33. A ratio represents the relation between:

(A) Part and Part

(B) Part and Whole

(C) Whole and Whole

(D) All of the above

Answer: (D)


34. Out of four numbers, the average of the first three numbers is thrice the fourth number. If the average of the four numbers is 5, the fourth number is:

(A) 4.5

(B) 5

(C) 2

(D) 4

Answer: (C)


35. Circle graphs are used to show:

(A) How various sections share in the whole?

(B) How various parts are related to the whole?

(C) How one whole is related to other wholes

(D) How one part is related to other parts?

Answer: (B)


36. On the keyboard of computer each character has an “ASCII” value which stands for:

(A) American Stock Code for Information Interchange

(B) American Standard Code for Information Interchange

(C) African Standard Code for Information Interchange

(D) Adaptable Standard Code for Information Change

Answer: (B)


37. Which part of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs calculation and makes decisions:

(A) Arithematic Logic Unit

(B) Alternating Logic Unit

(C) Alternate Local Unit

(D) American Logic Unit

Answer: (A)


38. “Dpi” stands for:      

(A) Dots per inch

(B) Digits per unit

(C) Dots pixel inch

(D) Diagrams per inch

Answer: (A)


39. The process of laying out a document with text, graphics, headlines and photographs is involved in

(A) Deck Top Publishing

(B) Desk Top Printing

(C) Desk Top Publishing

(D) Deck Top Printing

Answer: (C)


40. Transfer of data from one application to another line is known as:

(A) Dynamic Disk Exchange

(B) Dodgy Data Exchange

(C) Dogmatic Data Exchange

(D) Dynamic Data Exchange

Answer: (D)


41. Tsunami occurs due to:

(A) Mild earthquakes and landslides in the oceans

(B) Strong earthquakes and landslides in the oceans

(C) Strong earthquakes and landslides in mountains

(D) Strong earthquakes and landslides in deserts

Answer: (B)


42. Which of the natural hazards have big effect on Indian people each year?

(A) Cyclones

(B) Floods

(C) Earthquakes

(D) Landslides

Answer: (B)


43. Comparative Environment Impact Assessment study is to be conducted for:

(A) the whole year

(B) three seasons excluding monsoon

(C) any three seasons

(D) the worst season

Answer: (A)


44. Sea level rise results primarily due to:  

(A) Heavy rainfall

(B) Melting of glaciers

(C) Submarine volcanism

(D) Seafloor spreading

Answer: (B)


45. The plume rise in a coal based power plant depends on:

(i) Buoyancy

(ii) Atmospheric stability

(iii) Momentum of exhaust gases

Identify the correct code:  

(A) (i) and (ii) only

(B) (ii) and (iii) only

(C) (i) and (iii) only

(D) (i), (ii) and (iii)

Answer: (B)


46. Value education makes a student:  

(A) Good citizen

(B) Successful businessman

(C) Popular teacher

(D) Efficient manager

Answer: (A)


47. Networking of libraries through electronic media is known as:

(A) Inflibnet

(B) Libinfnet

(C) Internet


Answer: (A)


48. The University which telecasts interactive educational programmes through its own channel is:

(A) B. R. Ambedkar Open University, Hyderabad

(B) I.G.N.O.U.

(C) University of Pune

(D) Annamalai University

Answer: (B)


49. The Government established the University Grants Commission by an Act of Parliament in the year:

(A) 1980

(B)  1948

(C) 1950

(D) 1956

Answer: (D)


50. Universities having central campus for imparting education are called:

(A) Central Universities

(B) Deemed Universities

(C) Residential Universities

(D) Open Universities

Answer: (A)

2006 December UGC NET Previous Years Solved Paper 1

1. Which of the following is not instructional material?

(A) Over Head Projector

(B) Audio Casset

(C) Printed Material

(D) Transparency

Answer: (D)


2. Which of the following statement is not correct?

(A) Lecture Method can develop reasoning Lecture Method can develop knowledge

(C) Lecture Method is one way process

(D) During Lecture Method students are passive

Answer: (A)


3. The main objective of teaching at Higher Education Level is:

(A) To prepare students to pass examination

(B) To develop the capacity to take decisions

(C) To give new information

(D) To motivate students to ask questions during lecture

Answer: (B)


4. Which of the following statement is correct?

(A) Reliability ensures validity

(B) Validity ensures reliability

(C) Reliability and validity are independent of each other

(D) Reliability does not depend on objectivity

Answer: (C)


5. Which of the following indicates evaluation?

(A) Ram got 45 marks out of 200

(B) Mohan got 38 percent marks in English

(C) Shyam got First Division in final examination

(D) All the above

Answer: (D)


6. Research can be conducted by a person who:

(A) has studied research methodology

(B) holds a postgraduate degree

(C) possesses thinking and reasoning ability

(D) is a hard worker

Answer: (A)


7. Which of the following statements is correct?

(A) Objectives of research are stated in first chapter of the thesis

(B) Researcher must possess analytical ability

(C) Variability is the source of problem

(D) All the above

Answer: (D)


8. Which of the following is not the Method of Research?

(A) Observation

(B) Historical

(C) Survey

(D) Philosophical

Answer: (A)


9. Research can be classified as:

(A) Basic, Applied and Action Research

(B) Quantitative and Qualitative Research

(C) Philosophical, Historical, Survey and Experimental Research

(D) All the above

Answer: (D)


10. The first step of research is:

(A) Selecting a problem

(B) Searching a problem

(C) Finding a problem

(D) Identifying a problem

Answer: (D)


Read the following passage and answer the question nos. 11 to 15:

After almost three decades of contemplating Swarovski-encrusted navels on increasing flat abs, the Mumbai film industry is on a discovery of India and itself. With budgets of over 30 crore each, four soon to be released movies by premier directors are exploring the idea of who we are and redefining who the other is. It is a fundamental question which the bling-bling, glam-sham and disham-disham tends to avoid. It is also a question which binds an audience when the lights go dim and the projector rolls: as a nation, who are we? As a people, where are we going?

The Germans coined a word for it, zeitgeist, which perhaps Yash Chopra would not care to pronounce. But at 72, he remains the person who can best capture it. After being the first to project the diasporic Indian on screen in Lamhe in 1991, he has returned to his roots in a new movie. Veer Zaara, set in 1986, where Pakistan, the traditional other, the part that got away, is the lover and the saviour. In Subhas Ghai’s Kisna, set in 1947, the other is the English woman. She is not a memsahib, but a mehbooba. In Ketan Mehta’s The Rising, the East India Englishman is not the evil oppressor of countless cardboard characterisations, which span the spectrum from Jewel in the Crown to Kranti, but an honourable friend.

This is Manoj Kumar’s Desh Ki dharti with a difference: there is culture, not contentious politics; balle balle, not bombs: no dooriyan (distance), only nazdeekiyan (closeness).

All four films are heralding a new hero and heroine. The new hero is fallible and vulnerable, committed to his dharma, but also not afraid of failure – less of a boy and more of a man. He even has a grown up name: Veer Pratap Singh in Veer-Zaara and Mohan Bhargav in Swades. The new heroine is not a babe, but often a bebe, dressed in traditional Punjabi clothes, often with the stereotypical body type as well, as in Bride and Prejudice of Gurinder Chadha.


11. Which word Yash Chopra would not be able to pronounce?

(A) Bling + bling

(B) Zeitgeist

(C) Montaz

(D) Dooriyan

Answer: (B)


12. Who made Lamhe in 1991?

(A) Subhash Ghai

(B) Yash Chopra

(C) Aditya Chopra

(D) Sakti Samanta

Answer: (B)


13. Which movie is associated with Manoj Kumar?

(A) Jewel in the Crown

(B) Kisna

(C) Zaara

(D) Desh Ki dharti

Answer: (D)


14. Which is the latest film by Yash Chopra?

(A) Deewar

(B) Kabhi Kabhi

(C) Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge

(D) Veer Zaara

Answer: (D)


15. Which is the dress of the heroine in Veer-Zaara?

(A) Traditional Gujarati Clothes

(B) Traditional Bengali Clothes

(C) Traditional Punjabi Clothes

(D) Traditional Madras Clothes

Answer: (C)


16. Which one of the following can be termed as verbal communication?

(A) Prof. Sharma delivered the lecture in the class room.

(B) Signal at the cross-road changed from green to orange.

(C) The child was crying to attract the attention of the mother.

(D) Dipak wrote a letter for leave application.

Answer: (A)


17. Which is the 24 hours English Business news channel in India?

(A) Zee News

(B) NDTV 24×7


(D) India News

Answer: (C)


18. Consider the following statements in communication:

(i) Hema Malini is the Chairperson of the Children’s Film Society, India.

(ii) Yash Chopra is the Chairman of the Central Board of Film Certification of India.

(iii) Sharmila Tagore is the Chairperson of National Film Development Corporation.

(iv) Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor and Preeti Zinta have all been recipients of Dada Saheb Phalke Award.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(A) (i) and (iii)

(B) (ii) and (iii)

(C) (iv) only

(D) (iii) only

Answer: (B)


19. Which of the following pair is not correctly matched?

(A) N. Ram: The Hindu

(B) Barkha Dutt : Zee News

(C) Pranay Roy: NDTV 24×7

(D) Prabhu Chawla: Aaj taak

Answer: (B)


20. “Because you deserve to know” is the punchline used by:

(A) The Times of India

(B) The Hindu

(C) Indian Express

(D) Hindustan Times

Answer: (D)

21. In the sequence of numbers 8, 24, 12, X, 18, 54 the missing number X is:

(A) 26

(B) 24

(C) 36

(D) 32

Answer: (C)


22. If A stands for 5, B for 6, C for 7, D for 8 and so on, then the following numbers stand for 17, 19, 20, 9 and 8:





Answer: (B)


23. The letters in the first set have certain relationship. On the basis of this relationship, what is the right choice for the second set?

AST : BRU : : NQV : ?





Answer: (D)


24. In a certain code, PAN is written as 31 and PAR as 35. In this code PAT is written as:

(A) 30

(B) 37

(C) 38

(D) 39

Answer: (B)


25. The sides of a triangle are in the ratio of   1/2 : 1/3 : 1/4.  If its perimeter is 52 cm, the length of the smallest side is:

(A) 9 cm

(B) 10 cm

(C) 11 cm

(D) 12 cm

Answer: (D)


26. Which one of the following statements is completely non-sensical?

(A) He was a bachelor, but he married recently.

(B) He is a bachelor, but he married recently.

(C) When he married, he was not a bachelor.

(D) When he was a bachelor, he was not married.

Answer: (B)

27. Which of the following statements are mutually contradictory?

(i) All flowers are not fragrant.

(ii) Most flowers are not fragrant.

(iii) None of the flowers is fragrant.

(iv) Most flowers are fragrant.

Choose the correct answer from the code given below:


(A) (i) and (ii)

(B) (i) and (iii)

(C) (ii) and (iii)

(D) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (D)


28. Which of the following statements say the same thing?

(i) “I am a teacher” (said by Arvind)

(ii) “I am a teacher” (said by Binod)

(iii) “My son is a teacher” (said by Binod’s father)

(iv) “My brother is a teacher” (said by Binod’s sister)

(v) “My brother is a teacher” (said by Binod’s only sister)

(vi) “My sole enemy is a teacher” (said by Binod’s only enemy)

Choose the correct answer from the code given below:


(A) (i) and (ii)

(B) (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v)

(C) (ii) and (vi)

(D) (v) and (vi)

Answer: (B)


29. Which of the following are correct ways of arguing?

(i) There can be no second husband without a second wife.

(ii) Anil is a friend of Bob, Bob is a friend of Raj, hence Anil is a friend of Raj.

(iii) A is equal to B, B is equal to C, hence A is equal to C.

(iv) If everyone is a liar, then we cannot prove it.

Choose the correct answer from the code given below:


(A) (iii) and (iv)

(B) (i), (iii) and (iv)

(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(D) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)

Answer: (A)


30. Which of the following statement/s are ALWAYS FALSE?

(i) The sun will not rise in the East some day.

(ii) A wooden table is not a table.

(iii) Delhi city will be drowned under water.

 (iv) Cars run on water as fuel. Choose the correct answer from the code given below:


(A) (i), (iii) and (iv)

(B) Only (iii)

(C) (i), (ii) and (iii)

(D) (ii) alone

Answer: (A)


Study the following graph and answer question numbers 31 to 33:


December Answer Key UGC NET Examination 2006 Paper I

31. In the year 2000, which of the following Companies earned maximum percent profit?

(A) a

(B) b

(C) d

(D) f

Answer: (D)


32. In the year 2001, which of the following Companies earned minimum percent profit?

(A) a

(B) c

(C) d

(D) e

Answer: (A)


33. In the years 2000 and 2001, which of the following Companies earned maximum average percent profit?

(A) f

(B) e

(C) d

(D) b

Answer: (A)


34. Human Development Report for ‘each’ of the year at global level has been published by:




(D) World Bank

Answer: (A)


35. The number of students in four classes A, B, C, D and their respective mean marks obtained by each of the class are given below:

Class A            Class B            Class C            Class D

Number of students    10                    40                    30                    20

Arithmetic mean         20                    30                    50                    15

The combined mean of the marks of four classes together will be:

(A) 32

(B) 50

(C) 20

(D) 15

Answer: (A)


36. LAN stands for:

(A) Local And National

(B) Local Area Network

(C) Large Area Network

(D) Live Area Network

Answer: (B)


37. Which of the following statement is correct?

(A) Modem is a software

(B) Modem helps in stabilizing the voltage

(C) Modem is the operating system

(D) Modem converts the analog signal into digital signal and vice-versa

Answer: (D)


38. Which of the following is the appropriate definition of a computer?

(A) Computer is a machine that can process information.

(B) Computer is an electronic device that can store, retrieve and process both qualitative and quantitative data quickly and accurately.

(C) Computer is an electronic device that can store, retrieve and quickly process only quantitative data.

(D) Computer is a machine that can store, retrieve and process quickly and accurately only qualitative information

Answer: (B)


39. Information and Communication Technology includes:

(A) On line learning

(B) Learning through the use of EDUSAT

(C) Web Based Learning

(D) All the above

Answer: (D)


40. Which of the following is the appropriate format of URL of e-mail?





Answer: (B)


41. The most significant impact of volcanic eruption has been felt in the form of:

(A) change in weather

(B) sinking of islands

(C) loss of vegetation

(D) extinction of animals

Answer: (A)


42. With absorption and decomposition of CO2 in ocean water beyond desired level, there will be:

(A) decrease in temperature

(B) increase in salinity

(C) growth of phytoplankton

(D) rise in sea level

Answer: (C)


43. Arrange column II in proper sequence so as to match it with column I and choose the correct answer from the code given below:

Column I                                 Column II

Water Quality                         pH Value

(a) Neutral                               (i) 5

(b) Moderately acidic              (ii) 7

(c) Alkaline                             (iii) 4

(d) Injurious                            (iv) 8


(a)        (b)        (c)        (d)

(A)       (ii)        (iii)       (i)         (iv)

(B)       (i)         (iii)       (ii)        (iv)

(C)       (ii)        (i)         (iv)       (iii)

(D)       (iv)       (ii)        (iii)       (i)

 Answer: (A)


44. The maximum emission of pollutants from fuel sources in India is caused by:

(A) Coal

(B) Firewood

(C) Refuse burning

(D) Vegetable waste product

Answer: (A)


45. The urbanisation process accounts for the wind in the urban centres during nights to remain:

rural areas

(B) slower than that in rural areas

(C) the same as that in rural areas

(D) cooler than that in rural areas

Answer: (A)


46. The University Grants Commission was constituted on the recommendation of:

(A) Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan Commission

(B) Mudaliar Commission

(C) Sargent Commission

(D) Kothari Commission

Answer: (A)


47. Which one of the following Articles of the Constitution of India safeguards the rights of Minorities to establish and run educational institutions of their own liking?

(A) Article 19

(B) Article 29

(C) Article 30

(D) Article 31

Answer: (C)


48.   Match List – I (Institutions) with List – II (Functions) and select the correct answer by using the code given below:

List – I (Institutions)                           List – II (Functions)

(a) Parliament                                      (i) Formulation of Budget

(b) C & A.G.                                       (ii) Enactment of Budget

(c) Ministry of Finance                       (iii) Implementation of Budget

(d) Executing Departments                 (iv) Legality of expenditure

(v) Justification of Income



(a)        (b)        (c)        (d)

(A)       (iii)       (iv)       (ii)        (i)

(B)       (ii)        (iv)       (i)         (iii)

(C)       (v)        (iii)       (iv)       (ii)

(D)       (iv)       (ii)        (iii)       (v)   

Answer: (B)


49. Foundation training to the newly recruited IAS (Probationers) is imparted by:

(A) Indian Institute of Public Administration

(B) Administrative Staff College of India

(C) L.B.S. National Academy of Administration

(D) Centre for Advanced Studies

Answer: (C)


50. Electoral disputes arising out of Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections are settled by:

(A) Election Commission of India

(B) Joint Committee of Parliament

(C) Supreme Court of India

(D) Central Election Tribunal

Answer: (C)

2006 June UGC NET Previous Years Solved Paper 1

1. Which of the following comprise teaching skill?

(A) Black Board writing

(B) Questioning

(C) Explaining

(D) All the above

Answer: (D)


2. Which of the following statements is most appropriate?

(A) Teachers can teach.

(B) Teachers help can create in a student a desire to learn.

(C) Lecture Method can be used for developing thinking.

(D) Teachers are born.

Answer: (B)


3. The first Indian chronicler of Indian history was:

(A) Megasthanese

(B) Fahiyan

(C) Huan Tsang

(D) Kalhan

Answer: (D)


4. Which of the following statements is correct?

(A) Syllabus is a part of curriculum.

(B) Syllabus is an annexure to curriculum.

(C) Curriculum is the same in all educational institutions affiliated to a particular university.

(D) Syllabus is not the same in all educational institutions affiliated to a particular university.

Answer: (A)


 5. Which of the two given options is of the level of understanding?

(I) Define noun. Define noun in your own words.

(A) Only I

(B) Only II

(C) Both I and II

(D) Neither I nor II

Answer: (B)


6. Which of the following options are the main tasks of research in modern society?

(I) to keep pace with the advancement in knowledge.

(II) to discover new things.

(III) to write a critique on the earlier writings.

(IV) to systematically examine and critically analyse the investigations/sources with objectivity.

(A) IV, II and I

(B) I, II and III

(C) I and III

(D) II, III and IV

Answer: (A)


7. Match List-I (Interviews) with List-II (Meaning) and select the correct answer from the code given below:

List – I (Interviews)                             List – II (Meaning)

(a) structured interviews                     (i)  greater flexibility approach

(b) Unstructured interviews                (ii) attention on the questions to be answered

(c) Focused interviews                        (iii) individual life experience

(d) Clinical interviews                         (iv) Pre determined question

(v) non-directive


(a)        (b)        (c)        (d)

(A)       (iv)       (i)         (ii)        (iii)

(B)       (ii)        (iv)       (i)         (iii)

(C)       (v)        (ii)        (iv)       (i)

(D)       (i)         (iii)       (v)        (iv)

Answer: (A)


8. What do you consider as the main aim of inter disciplinary research?

(A) To bring out holistic approach to research.

(B) To reduce the emphasis of single subject in research domain.

(C) To over simplify the problem of research.

(D) To create a new trend in research methodology.

Answer: (A)


9. One of the aims of the scientific method in research is to:

(A) improve data interpretation

(B) eliminate spurious relations

(C) confirm triangulation

(D) introduce new variables

Answer: (B)


10. The depth of any research can be judged by:

(A) title of the research.

(B) objectives of the research.

(C) total expenditure on the research.

(D) duration of the research.

Answer: (B)


Read the following passage and answer the questions 11 to 15:

The superintendence, direction and control of preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, elections to Parliament and State Legislatures and elections to the offices of the President and the Vice – President of India are vested in the Election Commission of India.   It is an independent constitutional authority.

Independence of the Election Commission and its insulation from executive interference is ensured by a specific provision under Article 324 (5) of the constitution that the chief Election Commissioner shall not be removed from his office except in like manner and on like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court and conditions of his service shall not be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.

In C.W.P. No. 4912 of 1998 (Kushra Bharat Vs. Union of India and others), the Delhi High Court directed that information relating to Government dues owed by the candidates to the departments dealing with Government accommodation, electricity, water, telephone and transport etc. and any other dues should be furnished by the candidates and this information should be published by the election authorities under the commission.


11. The text of the passage reflects or raises certain questions:

(A) The authority of the commission cannot be challenged.

(B) This would help in stopping the criminalization of Indian politics.

(C) This would reduce substantially the number of contesting candidates.

(D) This would ensure fair and free elections.

Answer: (D)


12. According to the passage, the Election Commission is an independent constitutional authority. This is under Article No.

(A) 324

(B) 356

(C) 246

(D) 161

Answer: (A)


13. Independence of the Commission means:

(A) have a constitutional status.

(B) have legislative powers.

(C) have judicial powers.

(D) have political powers.

Answer: (A)


14. Fair and free election means:

(A) transparency

(B) to maintain law and order

(C) regional considerations

(D) role for pressure groups

Answer: (B)


15. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from his office under Article :

(A) 125

(B) 352

(C) 226

(D) 324

Answer: (D)


16. The function of mass communication of supplying information regarding the processes, issues, events and societal developments is known as:

(A) content supply

(B) surveillance

(C) gratification

(D) correlation

Answer: (A)


17. The science of the study of feedback systems in humans, animals and machines is known as:

(A) cybernetics

(B) reverse communication

(C) selectivity study

(D) response analysis

Answer: (A)


18. Networked media exist in inter-connected:

(A) social environments

(B) economic environments

(C) political environments

(D) technological environments

Answer: (D)


19. The combination of computing, telecommunications and media in a digital atmosphere is referred to as:

(A) online communication

(B) integrated media

(C) digital combine

(D) convergence

Answer: (D)


20. A dialogue between a human-being and a computer programme that occurs simultaneously in various forms is described as:

(A) man-machine speak

(B) binary chat

(C) digital talk

(D) interactivity

Answer: (D)

21. Insert the missing number: 16/32,             15 /33,             17/31,              14/34               ?

(A) 19/35

(B) 19/30

(C) 18/35

(D) 18/30

Answer: (D)


22. Monday falls on 20th March 1995.  What was the day on 3rd November 1994?

(A) Thursday

(B) Sunday

(C) Tuesday

(D) Saturday

Answer: (A)


 23. The average of four consecutive even numbers is 27. The largest of these numbers is:

(A) 36

(B) 32

(C) 30

(D) 28

Answer: (C)


24. In a certain code, FHQK means GIRL. How will WOMEN be written in the same code?





Answer: (A)


25. At what time between 4 and 5 O’clock will the hands of a watch point in opposite directions?

(A) 45 min. past 4

(B) 40 min. past 4

(C) 50 4/11 min. past 4

(D) 54 6/11 min. past 4

Answer: (D)


26. Which of the following conclusions is logically valid based on statement given below?

Statement: Most teachers are hard working.


(I) Some teachers are hard working.

(II) Some teachers are not hard working.

(A) Only (I) is implied

(B) Only (II) is implied

(C) Both (I) and (II) are implied

(D) Neither (I) nor (II) is implied

Answer: (C)


27. Who among the following can be asked to make a statement in Indian Parliament?

(A) Any MLA

(B) Chief of Army Staff

(C) Solicitor General of India

(D) Mayor of Delhi

Answer: (C)


28. Which of the following conclusions is logically valid based on statement given below?

Statement: Most of the Indian states existed before independence.


(I) Some Indian States existed before independence.

(II) All Indian States did not exist before independence.

(A) only (I) is implied

(B) only (II) is implied

(C) Both (I) and (II) are implied

(D) Neither (I) nor (II) is implied

Answer: (B)


29. Water is always involved with landslides. This is because it:

(A) reduces the shear strength of rocks

(B) increases the weight of the overburden

(C) enhances chemical weathering

(D) is a universal solvent

Answer: (B)


30. Direction for this question:

Given below are two statements (a) and (b) followed by two conclusions (i) and (ii). Considering the statements to be true, indicate which of the following conclusions logically follow from the given statements by selecting one of the four response alternatives given below the conclusion :


(a) all businessmen are wealthy.

(b) all wealthy people are hard working.


(i) All businessmen are hard working.

(ii) All hardly working people are not wealthy

(A) Only (i) follows

(B) Only (ii) follows

(C) Only (i) and (ii) follows

(D) Neither (i) nor (ii) follows

Answer: (A)


31. Using websites to pour out one’s grievances is called:

(A) cyber venting

(B) cyber ranting

(C) web hate

(D) web plea

Answer: (A)


32. In web search, finding a large number of documents with very little relevant information is termed:

(A) poor recall

(B) web crawl

(C) poor precision rate

(D) poor web response

Answer: (A)


33. The concept of connect intelligence is derived from:

(A) virtual reality

(B) fuzzy logic

(C) Bluetooth technology

(D) value added networks

Answer: (D)


34. Use of an ordinary telephone as an Internet applicance is called:

(A) voice net

(B) voice telephone

(C) voice line

(D) voice portal

Answer: (C)


35. Video transmission over the Internet that looks like delayed livecasting is called:

(A) virtual video

(B) direct broadcast

(C) video shift

(D) real-time video

Answer: (D)


36. Which is the smallest North-east State in India?

(A) Tripura

(B) Meghalaya

(C) Mizoram

(D) Manipur

Answer: (A)


37. Tamilnadu coastal belt has drinking water shortage due to:

(A) high evaporation

(B) sea water flooding due to tsunami

(C) over exploitation of ground water by tube wells

(D) seepage of sea water

Answer: (D)


38. While all rivers of Peninsular India flow into the Bay of Bengal, Narmada and Tapti flow into the Arabian Sea because these two rivers:

(A) Follow the slope of these rift valleys

(B) The general slope of the Indian peninsula is from east to west

(C) The Indian peninsula north of the Satpura ranges, is tilted towards the west

(D) The Indian peninsula south of the satpura ranges is tilted towards east

Answer: (A)


39. Soils in the Mahanadi delta are less fertile than those in the Godavari delta because of:

(A) erosion of top soils by annual floods

(B) inundation of land by sea water

(C) traditional agriculture practices

(D) the derivation of alluvial soil from red-soil hinterland

Answer: (A)


40. Which of the following institutions in the field of education is set up by the MHRD Government of India?

(A) Indian council of world Affair, New Delhi

(B) Mythic Society, Bangalore

(C) National Bal Bhawn, New Delhi

(D) India International Centre, New Delhi

Answer: (C)

41. Assertion (A): Aerosols have potential for modifying climate

Reason (R): Aerosols interact with both short waves and radiation

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false

(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Answer: (A)


42. ‘SITE’ stands for:

(A) System for International technology and Engineering

(B) Satellite Instructional Television Experiment

(C) South Indian Trade Estate

(D) State Institute of Technology and Engineering

Answer: (B)


43. What is the name of the Research station established by the Indian Government for ‘Conducting Research at Antarctic?

(A) Dakshin Gangotri

(B) Yamunotri

(C) Uttari Gangotri

(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)


44. Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) includes:

(A) Department of Elementary Education and Literacy

(B) Department of Secondary Education and Higher Education

(C) Department of Women and Child Development

(D) All the above

Answer: (D)


45. Parliament can legislate on matters listed in the State list:

(A) With the prior permission of the President.

(B) Only after the constitution is amended suitably.

(C) In case of inconsistency among State legislatures.

(D) At the request of two or more States.

Answer: (D)


The following pie chart indicates the expenditure of a country on various sports during a particular year.  Study the pie chart and answer it Question Number 46 to 50.


June Answer Key UGC NET Examination 2006 Paper I

46. The ratio of the total expenditure on football to that of expenditure on hockey is:

(A) 1:15

(B) 1:1

(C) 15:1

(D) 3:20

Answer: (B)


47. if the total expenditure on sports during the year was Rs. 1,20,000,00 how much was spent on  basket ball?

(A) Rs. 9,50,000

(B) Rs. 10,00,000

(C) Rs. 12,00,000

(D) Rs. 15,00,000

Answer: (D)


48. The chart shows that the most popular game of the country is :

(A) Hockey

(B) Football

(C) Cricket

(D) Tennis

Answer: (C)


49. Out of the following country’s expenditure is the same on :

(A) Hockey and Tennis

(B) Golf and Basket ball

(C) Cricket and Football

(D) Hockey and Golf

Answer: (B)


50. If the total expenditure on sport during the year was Rs. 1,50,00,000 the expenditure on cricket and hockey together was:

(A) Rs. 60,00,000

(B) Rs. 50,00,000

(C) Rs. 37,50,000

(D) Rs. 25,00,000

Answer: (A)

Array and Chain

1. Introduction: The addition of a characteristic to a basic subject idea or an isolate idea leads to the addition of an array. The addition of an array implies the addition of a further division of a basic subject or an isolate idea as the case may be. Any isolate idea taken along with its succession of sub isolates is also an isolate idea. The succession of the isolate idea from the first to the last reached in this process is denoted by the term “chain of isolate idea”. A chain may similarly be formed in respect of basic subject idea.

2. Array: The series of co-ordinate subdivision which are obtained by dividing a class or a division according to a single characteristic. Each co-ordinate division in array should exclude all the others and the whole array should be exhaustive of the context of the class. The order of the division in an array should be that deemed most helpful to users.
3. Chain: The successions of division subordinate one to another expressing the relation. “A includes B which in turn includes C (or conversely c is a part of B which is a part of A) constitute a chain of or it may also be defined as a hierarchy of term each containing or including all which follow it in the same series.

4. Examples: Asia, India, Assam, Kamrup, Guwahati is a chain of isolate idea.


Archives: In general, archives consist of records which have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on the ground of their enduring cultural, historical or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist. This means that archives (the places) are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings.

a) Definition: The word “archive” is derived from the Greek “arkhē” meaning government or order (compare an-archy, mon-archy). The word originally developed from the Greek “arkheion” which refers to the home or dwelling of the Archon, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted under the authority of the Archon. Since “archive”, as a noun or a verb, has acquired meanings related to computer science, Archivists tend to prefer the term “archives” (with an S) as the correct terminology to serve as both the singular and plural.

A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science.

b) Objectives

i) Safe storage and preservation of the document in a climate control facility;

ii) Classification and Cataloguing of the document;

iii) Retrieval and safe handling of the document.

c) Collections: It contains records (primary source documents) which have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization’s lifetime. The collection refers to all historical records (not just documents and manuscripts but videos, disks, and other tangible forms as well) held and preserved by an institution. Archival materials are not published; these are always famous documents, or even necessarily old.

The archives of an organization (such as a corporation or government) tend to contain records, such as administrative files, business records, memos, official correspondences and meeting minutes. The archives of an individual may include letters, papers, photographs, computer files, scrapbooks, financial records or diaries created or collected by the individual – regardless of media or format.

d) Services: Professor and author Bruce Dearstyne identified the eight roles of the archivist-

– The role of an agent to the past and the future. This means that archivists must always bear in mind its historical significance and its importance to posterity.

– They must work in conjunction with related information fields. For example, many archivists work closely with librarians and records managers to determine the value of records and their place in the repository.

– They act as organizers. This requires the archivists to manage, coordinate, and allocate resources in a manner that allows an easy access and use by staff and patrons.

– Archivists should act as evaluators of program materials by continually assessing records.

– They should assert control and order. This includes systematic filing and storing of items.

– They ensure physical survival of records through security, storage, and disaster planning.

– Archivists foster access to valuable records and so they must also encourage patrons and researchers to make use of their collections. They can do this through various promotional campaigns (articles or exhibits).

– Archivists act as public relations coordinators for their repository. This means that they attempt to reach out to the community via conferences and presentations that demonstrate the importance and richness of their resources.

Administration Vs Management

There are many factors according to which administration can be distinguished from management. These are as follows:

i) Meaning

Administration: It is concerned with formulation of broad objectives, plans & policies.

Management: Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. It puts into action the policies and plans laid down by the administration.

ii) Nature

Administration: Administration is a decision-making function.

Management: Management is an executing function.

iii) Scope

Administration: It takes major decisions of an enterprise as a whole.

Management: It takes decisions within the framework set by the administration.

iv) Process

Administration: Administration decides what is to be done & when it is to be done.

Management: Management decides who should as it & how should he dot it.

v) Function

Administration: Planning and organizing functions are involved in it.

Management: Motivating and controlling functions are involved in it.

vi) Skills

Administration: It needs administrative rather than technical abilities. Administration handles the business aspects such as finance.

Management: It requires technical activities. Management handles the employers.

vii) Level

Administration: It is a top-level activity.

Management: It is a middle level activity.

viii) Influence

Administration: The administration is influenced by public opinion, govt. policies, religious organizations, customs etc.

Management: The management decisions are influenced by the values, opinions, beliefs & decisions of the managers.

ix) Status

Administration: Administration represents owners of the enterprise who earn return on their capital invested & profits in the form of dividend.

Management: Management constitutes the employees of the organization who are paid remuneration (in the form of salaries & wages).

Accessioning Work

Accessioning Work: The accessioning work includes the following activities

a) Receiving the Books and Bills: From the vendors books are received along with bills.

b) Checking the Books: After receiving the books they should be checked for page missing, damaged binding, and for such other issues.

c) Arranging the Bills and the Books in Parallel Sequence: The books should be arranged in the sequence in which these have been entered in the order placed to the vendor.

d) Verification: Then the bill should be verified in regard to the order in terms of books received and the amount to be paid. The order slip with the bill and books should be submitted at the accession corner. If books are not received in time then reminder letters should be sent to the vendor.

e) Accessioning: The accessioning involves the following activities-

i) Entering details in the accession register: In the accessioning process, the details of the books are entered in the accession register.Documents are entered date-wise according to their receipt in the library. All purchased books are entered in the order of their bills.

ii) Entering accession number in the document: Accession number is recorded at the back of title page and on the conventional clue place of the volume.

iii) Certifying the bills: Accession number is also written against the respective item in the bill for purchased book. After entering all the items covered by one bill a certificate must be furnished on the bill which should be like the following. A rubber stamp for this purpose may be usefull


Certified that all the books as per the bill have been duly entered in the accession register vide numbers from —— to —-.


f) Transmitting Books: Then the books are sent to the technical department for classification and cataloguing (processing). At this step each book should also be provided with a process slip (7.5 cm X 12.5 cm) as well as earlier order slip.

g) Transmitting Bills: Then bills are passed for payment.

h) Books – In-Process: The cards belonging to them, after noting the date of accessioning and the accession numbers, are filed in a tray labelled as “Books – In-Process”.




i) Accession Register: Accession register is the official stock record in the library about each document forming part of its collection; it is a bound register consisting of essential field in regards to a description of a reading material. This record gives a complete history of each book / periodical acquired by the library. The general practice in libraries is to have a single register in which all types of document whether purchased or received as gift or on exchange or as deposit is entered. But some libraries have the practice of using separate accession registers for gifts. When a book is withdrawn, then the corresponding accession slip is withdrawn or the note regarding withdrawal is given in the accession register. In case, a user loses a book, then with the help of details given in the accession register, the user may be asked either to make payment or to replace the copy.


ii) Accession Number: Every volume added to the library receives a serial number in the order of acquisition to the library collection. This includes book purchased or received in exchange or as gift. This number is called accession number. Cumulated volumes of periodicals, which are to be bound and preserved in the library, are also accessioned.


Academic Status of a Librarian

Academic Status of a Librarian: Status means the social position or rank in relation to others and its relative importance. The status of the profession depends upon the rules that reflect the entry qualification for the new aspirants that want to join the profession, their future career prospects, the level of training needed, amount of experience required. After getting a job it also depends upon the position held in the administrative hierarchy of the institution, level of responsibility vested, amount of salary drawn, tenure, voting privileges within or outside the institution, vacation, sabbatical leave, sick leave, retirement benefit, social privilege and so on.

At present in India the status of the librarian is somewhat confused and uncertain. However, some academic librarians in colleges and universities are considered as faculty, and they hold similar academic ranks as professors. The following points will throw some light on the overall position of the librarian as an academician in different academic institutions.

a) Entry Qualification: At present the entry qualification for the post of librarian at college is on par with that of the lecturer i.e. Master degree with minimum of 55% marks in Library Studies, Library Science, Library and information Science and, in some cases, a Master’s degree in another field, SLET/SET/NET and at university level, it is similar with that of the head of different departments.

b) Rank in the Administrative Hierarchy: He works at the top level of administrative hierarchy, next to the principal and vice principal at college level and alone with the top administrator such as Vice Chancellor, Registrar, Controller of Examinations in the University level. In case of universities, the librarian is directly responsible to the vice chancellor of the university or in colleges to the principal. The librarian is also a member of a University’s Academic Council.

c) Responsibilities: He/she acts as a boss or chief executive and is responsible for all the administrative functions of the library. He helps not only the students but also the teaching staff. Besides, he / she can be termed as the teacher of the self-education practice, who complements and supplements the classroom teaching.

d) Salary and Grade: The salary and grade of a qualified librarian is at par with the teaching staff of the respective institution. In college, lecturer grade is given to the librarian, in Universities the grade of the librarian is equivalent to professors.

e) Condition at Foreign Countries: In the United States and Canada, generally, the trend is to provide academic status to the librarians working in colleges and universities.

In India, in Karnataka, the Karnataka Government passed a resolution for the librarian to be treated on par with a teacher on 21st July 2006. Of course this is due to the efforts of the Karnataka State College Librarians’ Association and fde credit goes to the Minister for Primary and Secondary Education Shri. Basavaraj Horatti and Shri D H. Shankarmurthy respectively.

Further, each individual working in an organization wants a feeling of group belongingness, as the public librarian are group among government officer, the librarian in research laboratories are group among scientist so the academic librarian wants to grouped alone with the faculty member of the institution.

            So in conclusion if we count the academic and professional qualifications of librarian, they are same as that of teaching staff, so the status should also be the same.

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